Describe in detail concept of industrial Microbiology?
Ans : Industrial microbiology and biotechnology both involve theuse of microorganisms to achieve specific goals , whether creatingnew products with monetary value or improving the environment Industrial microbiology . as it has traditionally developed , focuses on products such as pharmaceutical and medicalcompounds ( antibiotics , hormones , transformed steroids ) , solvents , organic acids , chemical feedstocks , amino acids , and enzymesthat have direct economic value . The microorganisms employedby industry have been isolated from nature , and in manycases , were modified using classic mutation – selection procedures.The era of biotechnology has developed rapidly in the lastseveral decades , and is characterized by the modification of microorganisms through the use of molecular biology , including theuse of recombinant DNA technology ( see chapter 14 ) . It is nowpossible to manipulate genetic information and design productssuch as proteins , or to modify microbial gene expression . In addition , genetic information can be transferred between markedly differentgroups of organisms , such as acteria and plants . Selection and use of microorganisms in industrial microbiologyand biotechnology are challenging tasks that require a solidunderstanding of microorganism growth and manipulation , aswell as microbial interactions with other organisms . The use of microorganisms in industrial microbiology and biotechnology follows a logical sequence . It is necessary first to identify or createa microorganism that carries out the desired process in the most efficient manner . This microorganism then is used , either ina controlled environment such as a fermenter or in complex systemssuch as in soils or waters to achieve specific goals . een
1. Choosing Microorganisms for Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
The first task for an industrial microbiologist is to find a suitable microorganism for use in the desired process . A wide variety ofalternative approaches are available , ranging from isolating microorganisms from the environment to using sophisticated molecular techniques to modify an existing microorganism .
2. Finding Microorganisms in Nature : Until relatively recently , the major sources of microbial cultures for use in industrial microbiology were natural materials such as soil samples , waters , and spoiled bread and fruit . Cultures from all areas of the world
were examined in an attempt to identify strains with desirable characteristics . Interest in ” hunting ” for new microorganisms continues unabated . Because only a minor portion of the microbial species in most environments has been isolated or cultured , there is a continuing effort throughout the world to find new microorganisms , even using environments that have been examined for decades . In spite of these long – term efforts , few microorganisms have been cultured and studied ; most microbes
- Microorganisms are used in industrial microbiology and biotechnology tocreate a wide variety of products and to assist in maintaining and improvingthe environment .
- Most work in industrial microbiology has been carried out usingmicroorganisms isolated from nature or modified through mutations . Inmodern biotechnology , microorganisms with specific genetic characteristicscan be constructed to meet desired objectives .
- Most microorganisms have not been grown or described . A major challengein biotechnology is to be able to grow and characterize these observed butuncultured microorganisms in what is called ” bioprospecting .”
- Forced evolution and adaptive mutations now are part of ” naturalgenetic engineering . ” modernbiotechnology . These can be carried out in processes termed
- The development of growth media and specific conditions for thegrowth of microorganisms is a large part of industrial microbiology andbiotechnology . Microorganisms can be grown in controlled desired products . environments with specific limitations to maximize the synthesis of
- Microbial growth in soils , waters , and other environments , where complexmicrobial communities already are present , cannot be factors orphysical conditions . completely controlled , and it is not possible to precisely define limiting
- Microbial growth in controlled environments is expensive ; it is used tosynthesize high – value microbial metabolites and other products for use inanimal and human health . In comparison , microbial growth in naturalenvironments usually does not involve the creation of specific microbial products ; microorganisms are used to carry out lower – value environmentaland agriculture – related processes .
- In controlled growth systems , different products are synthesized during growth and after growth are completed . Most antibiotics are produced after the completion of active growth .
- Antibiotics and other microbial products continue to contribute to animaland human welfare . Newer products include anticancer drugs.Combinatorial biology is making it possible to produce hybrid antibioticswith unique properties .
- The products of industrial microbiology impact all aspects of our lives . These often are bulk chemicals that are used as food supplements andacidifying agents . Other products are used as biosurfactants and emulsifiersin a wide variety of applications .
- Degradation is critical for understanding microbial contributions to naturalenvironments . The chemical structure of substrates and microbialcommunity characteristics play important roles in determining the fate ofchemicals . Anaerobic degradation processes are important for the initialmodification of many compounds , especially those with chlorine and otherhalogenated functions . Degradation can produce simpler or modifiedcompounds that may not be less toxic than the original compound .
- Biosensors are undergoing rapid development , which is limited only by theadvances that are occurring in molecular biology and other areas of science.It is now possible , especially with streptavidin biotin – linked systems , tohave essentially real – time detection of important pathogens .
- Gene arrays , based on recombinant DNA technology , allow geneexpression to be monitored . These systems are being used in the analysis ofcomplex microbial systems .
- Bacteria , fungi , and viruses are increasingly employed as biopesticides , thus reducing dependence on chemical pesticides .
- Application of microorganisms and their technology has both positive andnegative aspects . Possible broader impacts of applications of industrialmicrobiology and biotechnology should be considered in the application ofthis rapidly expanding area .
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