Definitions in Chemistry Acid, Antioxidants, Buffer capacity, Buffers/buffer solutions, Base and other 70 Definitions

Definitions in Chemistry Acid, Antioxidants,

Buffer capacity, Buffers/buffer solutions, Base, Hypochlorhydria, Achlorhydria, Acidifying agents, Gastrointestinal agents,

1. Acid: A substance which gives hydronium ions (H’) in aqueous solution is called acid, e.g. dilute HCI, dilute HNO,, H,SO4.

2. Base: A substance which gives hydroxyl ions (OH) in aqueous solution is called base, e.g. KOH, NAOH, Ca(OH)2.

3. Buffers/buffer solutions: A solution which resists the changes in pH upon the addition of a small amount of acid or alkali.

4. Buffer capacity: It is defined as the moles of strong acid or strong base required to change the pH of 1 litre of the buffer solution by 1 unit.

5. Antioxidants: The substances which can prevent the oxidation of other materials are called antioxidants, e.g. sodium nitrite, SO,.

6. Gastrointestinal agents: The drugs which are used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders are called GIT agents.

7. Acidifying agents: The substances which increase the level of acid in the stomach are called acidifying agents, e.g. dilute HCI.

8. Achlorhydria: It means absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

9. Hypochlorhydria: It means decrease in secretion of dilute HCI in the stomach below the normal level.

10. Antacids: The substances which neutralize excessive or abnormal acidity in the stomach are called antacids, e.g. sodium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide gel.

11. Protectives: These are the substances which protect the exposed surface from harmful stimuli, e.g. kaolin, bismuth carbonate.

12. Adsorbants: The substances which are used to absorb the gases, toxins and bacteria are called adsorbants, e.g. kaolin, activated charcoal.

13. Saline cathartics/purgatives: The drugs which increase the removal of materials from the intestine are called saline cathartics, e.g. magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate.

14. Topical agents: The agents which are applied topically or locally to the skin or mucus membranes are called topical agents, e.g. calamine, iodine, castor oil.

15. Astringents: The substances which cause precipitation of superficial proteins are called astringents, e.g. alum, zinc sulphate.

16. Antimicrobial agents: The agents which are used to kill the microbes are called antimicrobial agents, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, boric acid, iodine.

17. Antiseptics: The drugs that prevent sepsis are called antiseptics, e.g. iodine, H,O.

18. Disinfectants: The substances that prevent the infection by des- troying the pathogenic microorganisms are called disinfectants.

19. Germicides: The agents which kill the germs are called germicides. 20. Bactericides: The agents which kill the bacteria are called bactericides.

21. Bacteriostatics: The agents which stop the growth of bacteria.

22. Scabicides: The agents which are used in the treatment of scabies.

23. Topical protectives: The substances which are applied on the skin for protection are called topical protectives, e.g. talc, calamine, zinc oxide, zinc stearate.

24. Dental products: The preparations which are used for the treatment of various dental disorders are called dental

25. Dental caries/tooth decay: It is a disease of teeth characterized by decalcification and gives bad odour of the mouth.

26. Anticaries agents: The agents which are used in the treatment of dental caries/tooth decay are called anticaries agents. e.g. sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride. products.

27. Cleansing agents/abrasives: The substances which are used to remove stain from the teeth are called cleansing agents, e.g. calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, sodium phosphate.

28. Polishing agents: The substances which give whiteness to teeth by their abrasive action are called polishing agents, e.g. stannous fluoride, calcium carbonate.

29. Desensitizing agents: The substances which reduce the sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold are known as desensitizing agents, e.g. zine chloride, strontium chloride.

30. Dentifrices: The substances which are used for cleansing dirty surface of the tooth are called dentifrices, e.g. calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate.

31. Dental fluorosis: When more quantity of fluoride is ingested, it is carried to bones and teeth and produce mottling of enamel which is known as dental fluorosis.

32. Inhalants: The substances which are in vapour or gas form are inhaled through nose are called inhalants, e.g. O2, N,O, CO,.

33. Respiratory stimulants: The substances which stimulate the rate of respiration are called respiratory stimulants, e.g. ammonium carbonate.

34. Expectorants: The substances which remove the sputums from the respiratory tract are called expectorants, e.g. ammonium chloride, potassium iodide.

35. Emetics: The substances which produce vomiting are called emetics, e.g. antimony potassium tartrate, copper sulphate.

36. Antidotes: The agents which stop the actions of poison are called antidotes, e.g. sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulphate.

37. Electrolytes: The substances whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity are known as electrolytes.

38. Intracellular fluid/ICF: It is the fluid present in the cell, e.g. cytoplasm.

39. Extracellular fluid/ECF: It is the fluid present outside the cell, e.g. tissue fluid.

40. Plasma fluid: It is the fluid present within the blood, e.g.- blood plasma.

41. Replacement therapy: The external administration of electrolytes in the body to correct electrolyte balance of the body is known as replacement therapy.

42. Electrolyte replenishers: The substances which are used to correct body fluid electrolyte balance are called electrolyte replenishers.

43. ORS/ORT: The preparations which are given orally to correct electrolyte balance of the body are called oral rehydration salts (ORS) and therapy is called oral rehydration therapy (ORT).

44. Hypokalemia: It means decreased level of potassium in the blood.

45. Hyperkalemia: It means increased level of potassium in the blood.

46. Hyponatremia: It means decreased level of sodium in the blood.

47. Hypernatremia: It means increased level of sodium in the blood.

48. Haematinics: The substances which increase the amount of haemoglobin in the blood are called haematinics, e.g. ferrous sulphate, ferrous gluconate, vitamin Bz.

49. Radioactivity: It is the spontaneous and continuous emission of a, B and y radiations from the substance.

50. Radiopharmaceuticals/radioactive substances: The sub- stances which emit radioactive radiations and are used in medi- cine are called radiopharmaceuticals/radioactive substances, e.g. calcium (Ca” and Ca), carbon (C4), cobalt (Co60).

51. Radiopaque contrast media/X-ray contrast media: The sub- stances which have a capacity to prevent passage of X-ray and hence appear opaque on X-ray examination are called radio- paque substances. The medium which gives this type of effect is called X-ray contrast medium, e.g. barium sulphate, iodine compounds, bismuth compounds.52. Half-life: It is the time in which the amount of radioactive substance is decreased to 2 of its original. 0.693 ,2 = decay constant

53. Nuclide: Nuclide is a species of atom characterized by the constitution of the nucleus in particular by the number of protons neutrons in the nucleus.

54. Isotopes: The species which have different atomic mass number ut the same atomic number are called isotopes, e.g. Pb 208 pb 206 207 82 Pb,

55. Isobars: The atoms of different elements having different atomic numbers and same atomic mass numbers are called isobars, e.g. “C& N.

56.Isotones: Atomic species having same number of neutrons but different mass numbers are called isotones.

57. Nuclear isomers: Atoms of the same elements having same atomic number and same atomic mass number but differ in radioactive properties are called nuclear isomers.

58. Curie: It is the quantity of any radioactive substance undergoing the same number of disintegrations in unit time as that of 1 gm of radium.

59. Rad: It is defined as the quantity of radiation which releases or absorbs 100 erg/gm of specified medium.

60. Roentgen: It is the unit of measurement of ionising effect of radiation by measuring damaging effect on biological matter. 61. Quality control: It is a day-to-day process of controlling quality of every incoming material till the finished product quality.

62. Quality assurance: Quality assurance is the department which includes a total quality control, government regulations, company standard and development of standard operating procedures of analysis.

63. Significant figures: Significant figures can be defined as the number of digits necessary to express the results of measure- ment consistent with the measured precision.

64. Impurity: Impurity is the undesirable material which may or may not be toxic, present in pharmaceutical substances.

65. Limit tests: Limit tests are the qualitative tests used to identify the small amounts of impurities present in the substance.

66. Tests for purity: These are the tests used for detecting impurities in the pharmaceutical substances.

67. Ash: Ash is the residue after complete ignition of the drug.

68. LOD: It means loss of drying of the substance.

69. LOI: It means loss of ignition of the substance.

70. Pharmacopoeia: It is an official book of standards published by respective governments containing list of drugs, pharma- ceuticals, uses, preparations, storage, etc.

71. Assay: The estimation of active principle present in a drug or pharmaceutical is known as assay.

72. Monograph of a drug: It means detail study of drug with reference to title, synonym, preparations, storage category, official preparation, etc.

73. Normal solution: A solution containing 1 gm equivalent weight per thousand ml of solution.

74. Molar solution: A solution containing 1 mole per thousand ml of solution.

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