Class 11 Living World, Living World Question/Answer

Class 11 Living World, Subject Biology, Chapter 01, Syllabus, Question/Answer


Living World

Class 11 Living World, Subject Biology, Chapter 01, Syllabus, Question/Answer Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geography, Marathi, Hindi, English, And Others All Subject Question/Answer And Question Pepper Class 1 to 12 And UG ,PG, Diploma  Syllabus And Others Dipartment All Syllabus Available for This Website 

1. Choose correct option

A. Which is not a property of living being?

a. Metabolism

b. Decay

c. Growth

d. Reproduction

B. Aparticular plant is strictly seasonal plant. Which one of the following is best suited if it is to be studied in the laboratory?

a. Herbarium

b. Museum

c. Botanical garden

d. Flower exhibition

C. A group of students found two cockroaches in the classroom. They had a debate whether they are alive or dead. Which life property will help them to do so?

a. Metabolism

b. Growth

c. Irritability

d. Reproduction

Q. 2. Distinguish between botanical gardens, zoological park and biodiversity park with reference to characteristics.
Ans. 1. Botanical Gardens
(i) Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. Ex. Hyderabad Botanical garden.
ii) Different types of flora conserved in the botanical garden.
(iii) This is a ‘ex- situ’ or ‘off site’ type of conservation.

2. Zoological Park
(i) A Zoological park is a facility in which animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public and in which theymay also breed. Ex. Mysore zoo.
(ii) Different type of fauna conserve in the zoological park.
(iii) This is a ‘ex-situ’ or ‘off- site’ type of conservation.

3. Biodiversity Park
(i) It is an ecological assemblage of species that form selfsustaining communities on degraded/barr-en landscape. Ex.Sundarbans National Park, Kaziranga National Park.
(ii) Whole biodiversity conserve in the biodiversity park.
(iii) This is a ‘in-situ’ or ‘on-site’ type of conservation.

Q.3. Answer the following questions.

A. Jijamata Udyan, the famous zoo in Mumbai has acclimatised humbolt penguins. Why should penguins be acclimatised when kept at a place away from their natural habitat?
Ans. (i) Acclimatisation is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod or pH etc., allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions, (ii) Penguins are usually found near nutrient rich, cold-water currents that provide an abundant supply of food. They are abundant on many temperate zone, (iii)The climate of Mumbai is a tropical, wet and dry climate, (iv) In order to adapt in given climatic conditions for their survival penguins should be acclimatised when kept at a place away from their natural habitat.

B. Riya found peculiar plant on her visit to Himachal Pradesh. What are the ways she can show it to her biology teacher and get information about it?
Ans. (i) Riya can take a picture of a peculiar plant she found on her visit to Himachal Pradesh, (ii) She can take a leaf print on a paper to show her teacher, (iii) She can pluck a flower if allowed by the existing authorities, (iv) She can take notes on the morphology of plant, (v) She can study floral pattern and the inflorescence of the plant.

C. At Andaman, authorities do not allow tourists to collect shells from beaches. Why it must be so?
Ans. The shells on the beaches of Andaman are one of the endangered species. Therefore, tourists are strictly not allowed to collect shells in order to save this species from complete extinction and to protect aquatic ecosystems.

D. Why do we have green house in botanical gardens?
Ans. (i) The main purpose of a greenhouse is to shield crops from excess cold or heat and unwanted pests, (ii) A greenhouse makes it possible to grow certain types of crops year round and fruits, tobacco plants, vegetables and flowers, (iii) The greenhouses in botanical gardens, specially in high altitude countries, concern with maintaining a visible food supply, (iv) A greenhouse in botanical garden meant to extend the growing season of prized crops and plants, (v) Hence, we have green houses in botanical garden in order to protect some crops from the extensive atmospheric conditions and unwanted pests that might harm the crops.

E. What do you understand from terms like in-situ and ex situ conservation?
Ans. The conservation of wildlife can be done mainly by two strategies :
(A) In-situ conservation – (i) In-situ conservation, also known as ‘on-site conservation’, refers to the conservation of wild species in their natural habitats and environment, (ii) Its aim is to conserve the natural habitats of the living creatures, maintain and recover wild species, especially endangered species, (iii) The national paf^’ wildlife sancturies and biosphere reserve are some of
examples of ‘in-situ’ conservation.
(B) Ex-situ conservation – (i) Ex-situ conservation, also known as ‘off-site’ conservation’, refers to the conservation of endangered species in the artificial or manmade habitats that imitate their natural habitats eg. zoo, aquarium, botanical garden etc. (ii) As it is smaller in area than the area of ‘in-situ ’ conservation, it offers less mobility to the animals, (iii) For the conservation of animals which are not found in abundance, this method is suitable.

Q.4. Write short notes.

(A) Role of human being in biodiversity conservation.
Ans. Human beings play most important role in biodiversity conservation. They can encourage local biodiversity in the following ways :
(i) Help Native Pollinators – Pollinators are the key to reproduction for most flowering plants which are foundations to the survival of many species on our planet. Hence the criteria of Biodiversity Hotspots give so much weight to the number of plants in an area.
(ii) Reduce or eliminate use of pesticides and fertilizer – Plant the native plants that are well adapted to the specific area. This will reduce the need to use pesticides and fertilizers. Avoid buying plants from nurseries that use systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids. Use organic compost and soil additives.

By applying some methods given below practically, the human being can conserve biodiversity
(i) Restore habitat in yard, (ii) Restore habitate in company, (iii) Reduce consumption, (iv) Reuse and recycle, (v) Reduce energy demand, (vi) Buy local foods, (vii) Buy organic foods, (viii) Donate to conservation efforts.

(B) Importance of botanical garden.
Ans. (i) There are about 2500 botanical gardens in the world that cultivate more than 6 million accessions of living plants, representing around 80,000 taxa or about one-quater of the estimated number of vascular plant species in the world, (ii) These gardens thus play a central role in the ex- situ conservation and exploration of global plant biodiversity. Botanical gardens also have an important role in the preservation of species necessary for human use and well-1 being, (iv) The range of scientific activities conducted by botanical gardens includes conservation, propagation, horticulture, seed science, taxonomy, systematics, geneticsbiotechnology, education, restoration ecology, pubhc education, (v) Botanical gardens are good locations many branches of scientific research, (vi) Botanic^ gardens are suitable locations for investigations into pollination ecology, seed dispersal and other interactions between plants and animals, (vii) Botanical gardens are also ideal places to integrate the study and conservation of trees species that are endangered in the world.

Q.5. How can you, as an individual, prevent the loss of Biodiversity?
Ans.  As an individual, I can do following things to prevent the loss of Biodiversity :
(i) F irst of all I will use eco-friendly products, (ii) Dispose of hazardous material safely as chemicals that enter the sewer system can contaminate fresh-water and ocean ecosystem, (iii) I will follow the rule: ‘Recycle, reuse and reduce’. Recycling decreases pollution by decreasing energy, electricity and water consumption and the need for landfills, (iv) I will drive less, instead walk more, (v) I will encourage and support local government initiatives that protect habitat and decrease threats to biodiversity, (vi) I will use natural products and methods for pest control such as BT for caterpillar infestation, (vii) I will use pesticides that have minimal residual effects such as pyrethrins, insecticidal soaps, and dormant oil sprays, and use barriers and collars around plants to keep pests away.

Can you tell?

(1) What is the different between living and non living things?
Ans. Living things

  1. Living things need food, air and water to survive.
  2. They can grow.
  3. They respond to changes around them i.e. they are sensitive.
  4. They can move on their own.
  5. They have ability to reproduce.

Non living things

  1. Non living things do not need food, air and water to survive.
  2. They can not grow.
  3. They do not respond to changes around them i.e. they are not sensitive.
  4. They can not move on their own.
  5. They do not reproduce.

(2) Enlist the characters of living organisms.
Ans. The characteristics of living organisms are enlisted as follows: (i) Movement (ii) Respiration (iii) Sensitivity (iv) Growth (v) Reproduction (vi) Excretion (vii) Nutrition.

(3) Whether all organisms are similar? Justify your answer.
Ans. All the organisms are not similar instead they are related to each other. Many organisms have similar body plans because they are descended from a common ancestor. As organisms adapt and evolve, not everything about them changes. Eg. (i) The Zebra’s stripes, show that each species adapted to its own environment after branching off from the common ancestor, (ii) The sea gull and the pelican are very similar in appearance, behaviour and DNA. The differences such as beak shape and size, show that each bird adapted to fit its own environment.
Therefore, we can say that all organisms are not similar. Every species has its own characters and appearance.

Can you tell?

(1) How can we study large number of organismsat a glance?
Ans. We can study large number of organisms at a glance with the help of taxonomical classification chart.

(2) Weather all organisms prepare their own food?
Ans. No. All organisms do not prepare their own food. Only autotrophs produce their own food e.g. plants, certain microbes.

(3) Which feature can be considered as all inclusive characteristic of life? Why?
Ans. Metabolism and irritability can be considered as all inclusive characteristics of life.
Note : Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

(4) What are the essentials of a good herbarium?
Ans. (i) Herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study, (ii)A good herbarium requires scissors, spade, bag, newspaper and clean board, (iii) It needs thin sheets i.e. ‘Flimsies’ in order to preserve the form and colour of large specimens. (iv) The requirement of blotters, absorbent paper, absorbent drying sheets is necessary, (v) A standard system of organizing the specimens into herbarium is needed, (vi) The well labelled light weight folders are necessary in order to stock specimen sheets in groups, (vii) Larger folders that consists of groups of species folders are essential, (viii) The well maintained record of nomenclature and classification make a good herbarium, (ix) A book that can keep the taxonomic record of the plants for ages in preserved condition is needed, (x) Cleanliness and protection from fungus and other microbial infections that can ruin the specimens is important, (xi) A very crucial and sophisticated preservation of ethical plants make a good herbarium.

(5) Why should we visit botanical gardens, museums and zoo?
Ans. We should visit botanical gardens, museums and zoo for the following reasons : (i) Access to unique plant collections and varieties, (ii) To discover new ideas and information, (iii) To get opportunity to support plant conservation, (iv) To connect the natural world. It provide an effective way of learning, (v) It bring change and development to us which eventually develop communities, (vi) It help us educating and inspiring, (vii) Visiting zoo helps us to understand the importance of taking care of the environment as it has a significant impact on the lives and welfare of animals, (viii) Zoos also aware us about the importance of conservation and animal care.

Think About it

(1) Can metabolic reactions demonstrated in a test tube (called ‘/w vitro’’ tests) be called living?
Ans. (i) The metabolic reactions occur in the body of living organisms but do not occur in non-living, (ii) An isolated reaction demonstrated out side the body in a test tube is neither living nor non-living, (iii) However a metabolic reaction “in vitro’ is a living reaction.

(2) Now a days patients are declared ‘brain dead’ and are on life support. They do not show any sign of self-consciousness. Are they living or non-living?
Ans. (i) If a patient is brain dead, it means that the brain is no longer working in any capacity and never will again.
(ii) Other organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver can work for a short time if the breathing machine is left in place.
(iii) Such patient do not perform the inclusive character of living beings, so he cannot be called as living.

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